INTERNET OF THINGS(IOT)

                               The term IOT is popular nowadays, many of them are crazy with this technology that it will rule the future sillicon valley!  As for early 2015 all electronic and electrical items are controlled individually without a common device,  For example the air conditioner has a seperate remote control system to work with it.  As our world are moving towards technology advancement it is little bit awkward to carry separate remote sensing and controlling device for different devices, So the engineers found a simple way of solving the problem.  The term internet is popular nowadays, The engineers thought that why cant we let internet control over those devices! There lies a key for iot development. IOT allows users to achieve the tech of advanced automation, analysis, and integration within electronic devices of different ranges.  They are now improving these technology so that it will become more advanced and accurate in wide range of usage areas.  IOT uses existing and blooming technology for sensing, networking and robotic controls.

KEY ELEMENTS:
  • AI:ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE: For making advance automation as for 2016, It should enhance every aspect of life with wide range of data collection and algorithms regarding to artificial intelligence systems and networks.  This can be simply explained that enhancing your  microwave oven to detect the type of food that is kept inside and adopt to the already defined process to cook! 
  • SENSORS: IOT is not possible without the sensors! As they play important role in detecting and analysing the commands and it interacts with the environment and transmits the data via internet! They act as a instrument which transforms Iot from passive mode of communication into active system with capable of realworld integration.
  • CONNECTIVITY: As the expansion of the term iot stands for internet of things the communication is nothing without the internet connectivity between the device of operation and the device for commanding. So a good working internet connection is necessary to establish iot tech in all devices.
  • SIZE: As the size of the electronic components has become very small it is important to design iot communication as it should not increase the size of the existing devices as it make this technology a utter failure.
SENSORS:
                                        Sensors are the most important device in iot communication. These devices consist of energy modules, power management modules, RF modules, and sensing modules. RF modules manage communications through their signal processing, WiFi, ZigBee, Bluetooth, radio transceiver, duplexer, and BAW. Sensors are like input devices which allows the device controller to know about the surroundings. Thus it acts as a primary input device.
                                        The sensing module manages sensing through assorted active and passive measurement devices. Here is a list of some of the measurement devices used in IoT: 
DEVICES:
accelerometers : temperature sensors 
magnetometers : proximity sensors 
gyroscopes : image sensors 
acoustic sensors : light sensors 
pressure sensors : gas RFID sensors 
humidity sensors : micro flow sensors 

STANDARD DEVICES:
                               The desktop, tablet, and cellphone remain integral parts of IoT as the command center and remotes.

  •                        The desktop provides the user with the highest level of control over the system and its settings.   
  •                        The tablet provides access to the key features of the system in a way resembling the desktop, and also acts as a remote.   
  •                       The cellphone allows some essential settings modification and also provides remote functionality.  

                      Other key connected devices include standard network devices like routers and switches. 

SOFTWARE:
                                IOT software targets areas of networking and actions through several platforms like embedded systems, partner systems and middle ware.  These applications are responsible for the real time analysis data collection device integration and business systems in the execution of related tasks.  Eg robotics, etc.

REAL TIME ANALYSIS:
                                 Inputs or data from various devices can be taken by these applications which changes with time.  These inputs are in analog form these analog data is converted into viable actions or understandable way for humans.  They analyze the information based on various settings mentioned and designed by the manufacturer or the user. In case of industries they perform automation related tasks or provide the data required by the industry.

DATA COLLECTION:
                                  This software is also developed for managing the light data security, measurements and collection and interruptation of data.  It uses certain protocols to help sensors to connect to the environment and machine to machine connection.  It collects data from different sources and separates them according to the commanded order and show us the filtered results.  It also works in reverse by distributing data given by the commanding center or person.  The system simultaneously transmits all collected data to the main server.

DEVICE INTEGRATION:
                                    The software supporting integration ensures the necessary cooperation and stable networking between the devices.  These applications are the defining software technology of the IoT network because without them, it is not an IoT system. They manage the various applications, protocols, and limitations of each device to allow communication.

TECH AND PROTOCOLS:
                                     IOT primarily uses standard protocols and networking technologies.  Though the major technologies and protocols include:

  • RFID
  • NFC
  • BLUETOOTH
  • RF
  • LTE-A
  • WIFI DIRECT 
  • WIRELESS


 
NFC AND RFID:
                          RFID(RADIO FREQUENCY IDENTIFICATION) and NFC(NEAR FIELD COMMUNICATION)  provide a simple low energy and a versatile option for identify and access information connection bootstrapping and payments. As nfc is nowadays available in all mobile platform it has a wide range of scope. In future the nfc transfer will become dominant over all means of data transfer.

  • NFC consists of communication protocols for electronic devices, typically a mobile device and a standard device. 
  • RFID technology employs 2-way radio transmitter-receivers to identify and track tags associated with objects. 
BLUETOOTH:
                            The bluetooth technology is a oldest method and is of short range it uses low power and long use need of IOT function while exploiting a standard technology with modern support across systems.

RADIO PROTOCOLS:
                                 Zigbee Zwave and other class of same network come under this type of protocol for creating low rate of private area networks.  These technologies consume low power but it will throughput unlike other communication.

LTE-A:
                                    LTE network is nothing but a fourth generation network communication which is popular nowadays since it has good range of coverage and high speed it is used in iot. LTE-A, or LTE Advanced, delivers an important upgrade to LTE technology by increasing not only its coverage, but also reducing its latency and raising its throughput. It gives IoT a tremendous power through expanding its range, with its most significant applications being vehicle, UAV, and similar communication.

WiFi DIRECT:
                                     WiFi-Direct eliminates the need for an access point. It allows P2P (peer-to-peer) connections with the speed of WiFi, but with lower latency. WiFi-Direct eliminates an element of a network that often bogs it down, and it does not compromise on speed or throughput.

WIRELESS:
                                This technology replaces the defect of iot system.  Though the sensors can power down over long periods, communication links must remain in listening mode.  Low energy wireless devices not only reduces consumption but also extends the lifetime of the device.    
COMMON USES:

  • INDUSTRY ENGINEERING AND INFRASTRUCTURE: It is used in industries where it enables the full automation and enables to access the industrial components without touching them. Thus a industrial supervisor can turn on the production by clicking a button on his transmitting device rest will be took over by iot.  Whenever the trouble takes place it will notify the concerned person or it will troubleshoot and correct by themselves thus acts like smart. That's why it is spreading in a major way.
  • GOVERNMENT AND SAFETY:  Who needs police as iot develops whenever a crime scene happens which is recorded by a iot enabled camera it automatically detects the face of the criminal and quickly reports the police men for further action. And it is helpful in areas with speed limit where a speedometer enabled with iot catches the cars with high speed and reports immediately with the car number by accessing the camera. Thus it makes law in control.
  • HOME AND OFFICE: Imagine if you went out on a tour but you just came to know that the air conditioning in your house is turned on what to do next. before iot the current bill will jump due to constant running of ac but due to iot since all devices in your house are connected through your mobile phone you can access them anytime you want and wherever you go. It acts wisely regarding your safety of your house while alaraming police whenever there is a breach.
  • ENVIRONMENT MONITORING:Current monitoring technology for air and water safety primarily uses manual labor along with advanced instruments, and lab processing. IoT improves on this technology by reducing the need for human labor, allowing frequent sampling, increasing the range of sampling and monitoring, allowing sophisticated testing on-site, and binding response efforts to detection systems. This allows us to prevent substantial contamination and related disasters. 
  • GPS TRACKING:A school in Richmond, California, embeds RFID chips in ID cards to track the presence of students. Even if students are not present for check-in, the system will track and log their presence on campus.  
  • NATIONAL DEFENSE:National threats prove diverse and complicated. IoT augments armed forces systems and services, and offers the sophistication necessary to manage the landscape of national defense. It supports better protection of borders through inexpensive, high performance devices for rich control and observation. 

                                     
SECURITY:
                                Every connected device creates opportunities for attackers. These vulnerabilities are broad, even for a single small device. The risks posed include data transfer, device access, malfunctioning devices, and always-on/always-connected devices.
The main challenges in security remain the security limitations associated with producing lowcost devices, and the growing number of devices which creates more opportunities for attacks.

Example: A German report revealed hackers compromised the security system of a steel mill. They disrupted the control systems, which prevented a blast furnace from being shut down properly, resulting in massive damage. Therefore, users must understand the impact of an attack before deciding on appropriate protection.

CHALLENGES IN INSTALLING;

  • DEVICE SIMILARITY: IOT devices are same, They utilize same connection and technology and device hardware component. If one system is hacked by a illegal hacker many devices will encounter same type of attacks.
  • TRANSPARENCY:Many IoT devices fail to provide transparency with regard to their functionality. Users cannot observe or access their processes, and are left to assume how devices behave. They have no control over unwanted functions or data collection; furthermore, when a manufacturer updates the device, it may bring more unwanted functions.
  • POWER: As the iot devices are real time they need electricity 24/7 for its high performance which is waste of energy and stupid idea but though it helps with many situations where power is not a matter of fact for considering.
IOT ADVANTAGES:

  • CUSTOMER FRIENDLY: Since all devices can be accessed by a single device it attracts customer and it is user friendly.
  • REDUCED WASTE:IoT makes areas of improvement clear. Current analytics give us superficial insight, but IoT provides real-world information leading to more effective management of resources. 

  • ENHANCED DATA COLLECTION: Modern data collection suffers from its limitations and its design for passive use. IoT breaks it out of those spaces, and places it exactly where humans really want to go to analyze our world. It allows an accurate picture of everything.

IOT DISADVANTAGES:

  • SECURITY – IoT creates an ecosystem of constantly connected devices communicating over networks. The system offers little control despite any security measures. This leaves users exposed to various kinds of attackers. 
  •  PRIVACY – The sophistication of IoT provides substantial personal data in extreme detail without the user's active participation.  
  • COMPLEXITY – Some find IoT systems complicated in terms of design, deployment, and maintenance given their use of multiple technologies and a large set of new enabling technologies. 
  • FLEXIBILITY – Many are concerned about the flexibility of an IoT system to integrate easily with another. They worry about finding themselves with several conflicting or locked systems.


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Subhash Mack
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21 December 2016 at 06:18 ×

Mass da

Congrats bro Subhash Mack you got PERTAMAX...! hehehehe...
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